Healthcare facilities are the basic requirements of human beings. Among the growing nations, India is a country where healthcare is in very bad shape. With introduction of various health insurance service providers, people are ready to visit the private hospitals nowa-days. Keeping good healthcare, cleanliness and advance healthcare technique in mind, healthcare developers are now coming up with good hospitals as no market is required for a hospital business. People may not have choice for emergency but for proper treatment, they prefer to go to a hospital having better equipment and doctors. The healthcare facility providers are also ready to invest in a world-class facility which will not only treat the patients but also generate revenue.
Functioning of Hospital
The operation and well-functioning of any healthcare units are much more important than setting up the units. Once a hospital starts functioning, no compromise can be done on its services as then the life of human beings is at risk. Integrated Building Management System (BMS) is provided in hospitals which get connected with all types of mechanical, electrical, plumbing, fire protection and security systems for its smooth operations.
Detail Functioning of IBMS
Security and management of healthcare buildings pose a challenge to administrators in more than one ways. Hazards like fire, unrestricted entry of people and vehicles, communication methods are a few of challenges. These challenges can be tackled by exploring automation technologies that help the management in securing their premises and conveying messages and distress alarms to occupants in a short span of time. IBMS here provides a holistic security and automation solution which achieves a fool–proof and uncompromised security, systemised access control, automatic and convenient visitor management system and intelligent tracking and monitoring of activities.
The solution is divided into three tiers:
Stage 1 – Information Management
Centralised Monitoring System
Integrated Management Server
Stage 2 – Building Automation
Building Management for individual locations
Access Control using RFID Reader
Monitoring and tracking of activities using IP/CCTV surveillance cameras
Public Address Systems to alert the occupants in the premises
Fire Alarm Systems to alert occupants from fire hazards
Stage 3 – Perimeter Security
Perimeter surveillance using CCTV/IP cameras
Vehicle Access Control
Stage 4 – Automation of all types of building services
Perimeter surveillance using CCTV/IP cameras
Vehicle Access Control.
While, stage 1, 2, 3 are basically covered by system providers and widely addressed by integrators, stage 4 which takes care of all major building services and helps in energy management, are not given importance which resulted in heavy energy bills and problem in basic day-today operations. Here, we will discuss how building services can be connected to IBMS and how it will benefit the health care developer.
IBMS for Building Services
In any healthcare building, there are number of mechanical equipment such as chillers, AHU, pumps, valve, electrical equipment such as switchgears, generators, panels, transformers, PHE equipment such as pumps, STP, boilers, treatment plants can be seen in any building along with measuring devices such as Btu meters, DB meters and energy meters. When these equipment get connected with one central point for a common goal, it will be known as Integrated Building Management System. Design engineers take care at each stage to select right equipment for saving energy as below:
Chillers and pumps- Timing, temperature control.
LED fixtures- Timer based or sensorbased control.
DG Back – Auto change over, Diesel stock level and billing control.
VFD in pumps, AHUs- for reducing running cost.
Water saving fixtures – monitoring and mal functioning of fixtures
STP – working condition, municipality alert and land scape water distribution.
CO and CO2 sensors in corridors, basements will help in increasing indoor air quality.
There are lot many mechanical and electrical equipment not listed above which are found in any healthcare building and can be optimised for power and water saving. But, the main objective will fulfill only with the help of IBMS. For a 350-bed hospital, nearly three lac units of electricity can be saved per month with simple IBMS without compromising on services. Life of HVAC system can be increased by five to six years.
All the building management system is based on some system platform and others need to get connected to that platform. RS 485 port is a common port which enables other equipment to get connected with IBMS easily.
Beyond energy saving, there are other advantages of IBMS from healthcare prospective.
Air Conditioning: Air conditioning requirement in hospital building is different than any commercial building. Some areas need 24 hours AC, whereas some areas need 12 or 8 hours. In fact, some consultation rooms need AC only for few hours. IBMS will help in providing uninterrupted AC supply in different times as well as it will help in reducing energy bills for AC.
Filters: Hospital HVAC system has different filter banks of minimum MERV 12 level to hepa. Proper IBMS will help the filter status updated every moment.
Heating requirements to some particular rooms can also be easily monitored and controlled by IBMS.
Auto ventilation of ICUs and NICUs: All isolated rooms will be auto ventilated with exhaust units automatically once patient get changed. CO2 level in these rooms will also be monitored by IBMS directly.
Consulting rooms will have volume variable frequency drives and CO2 sensors. If both are connected with IBMS, ventilation rate can be controlled and running cost can be saved as units will not be running for unoccupied time.
All the indoor air conditioning units have thermostat which get connected
to IBMS and dampers. This way thermal control becomes easy.
On timing of the function of operation theaters, IBMS will put an auto cleaning of air program where the exhaust system of the OT will run in exhaust mode. Same units can be reworked on 100 per cent fresh air mode.
Electrical: IBMS will always help in lighting controls sensors by using of daylight thus, reducing in energy bills.
DG: Starting from automation to running status will be monitored by BMS. It will give a history of power failures.
Security systems are entirely connected in IBMS which enhance the modern security. Doctor on call systems are also get connected in IBMS and its status and history get stored.
Nurse calling system gets connected with IBMS for record and history of the requirements.
Biometric and card-based access system in integration with IBMS will give actual location of each individual.
Hot water system and solar hot water line sensors are also connected with IBMS for actual status on functioning of the system.